Windows Used in the Buildings

Windows are provided in the building to allow natural light and fresh air into it, the size of the Building windows is guided by the total area of window space required. The following guidelines will be helpful in planning a window in the Building Construction.

(1) There should be one square meter of window space for 30 to 40 m of inside content of the room.

(2) Breadth of window = (width of room + height of room).

(3) Total glazing of windows provided should be at least 10% of the floor area of the room. It is a good practice to give at least 20% of the floor area as the total glazed area of the windows. A continuous sash or one large opening in a room provides better distribution of light than a number of small windows.

Types of Windows used in the Building

The following are the types of Building windows :

1. Paneled Window

2. Paneled and Glazed window

3. Glazed window

4. Bay window

5, Corner window

6. Skylight window

7. Clerestory window

8. Steel window/Metal window

9. Sliding window

10. Louvered window

Paneled Window used in the Building design

This type of window is provided in low-cost houses. Like doors, windows may be single paneled or two to six paneled. The sizes of the head, sill, and posts are taken as 75 x 100 mm while the styles and rails are kept 75 mm wide.

Paneled and Glazed Window used in the Building design

In this type of window, the upper part of the window is made glazed whereas the lower part is paneled.

Glazed Window used in the Building design

The sash is generally hinged to one style and opens out to keep it watertight. The various components of the sash are rails, styles, mullions. They may be fixed rigidity to the frame or hinged at the styles or may slide horizontally.

Bay Window used in the Building design

Window projecting beyond the walls of the room to provide additional space for light and air and for architectural purposes.

Corner Window used in the Building design

A window provided at the corners to admit end light from two directions.

Sky Light Window used in the Building design 

The window is fixed on the sloping surface of an inclined roof. It admits light into the room through fixed glass panes.

Clerestory Window used in the Building design

To provide light and air to the room in the case of the closed verandah. It is provided between the roof slab and verandah slab.

Metal Window or Steel Window used in the Building design                   

Nowadays these are extensively used in public and residential buildings on account of their strength and lesser cost. They are made up of mild steel, aluminum, bronze, stainless steel, etc. Aluminum windows are rust-proof, durable, and require no maintenance and painting. M.S. windows are widely used, made up of angle sections, Z-sections, T-sections, or channel sections. They can be fixed either directly to the masonry opening, or they may be filled into a wooden frame already fixed in the opening. Normally, the first option is adopted because it is cheaper.

Advantages of Steel Window used in Building Design 

1. Elegant appearance.

2. No contraction or expansion and manufactured with greater precision.

3. Stronger and more durable than wooden windows.

4. Termite proof and highly fire-resistant.

5. Easy to maintain and the cost of maintenance is almost negligible.

As seen above, the most commonly used window nowadays is the steel window. It 18 made up of mild steel sections welded together to form shutters as well as frames. A typical mild steel section called Z-section is used for steel windows.

Aluminum Sliding Window used in the Building design:

This is also a modern type of window. It consists of the frame in the form of aluminum channels having raised rails in them. The number of rails can be 2 to 4, or more (rarely) depending upon the number of shutters sliding over them. The shutters are made up of large glass panes securely fixed in aluminum channels. These channels have spring-loaded roller bearings or wheels which slide over the rails.

Sliding Window

(a) In this type of window shutters moves on roller bearings and can side either horizontally or vertically. 

(b) Such windows are provided in trains, buses, shops, and bank counters, etc.

Louvered Window

(a) Such windows are provided for ventilation only and they do not permit any outside vision. The shutter consists of top and bottom rails, and two styles that are grooved to receive the louvers. The louvers are generally fixed at a 45° slope downward to the outer side to run off rainwater. 

(b) Sometimes Venetian shutters are provided in which the louvers can be open or closed, by means of an operating device known as Venetian blind.

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