Remedies of Dampness in Buildings






Temporary Dampness Remedies for External Walls of the Buildings

The internal temporary dampness remedies in the buildings can be more effective if the walls have been treated from external sides. The external building dampness treatment can only be successful when there is an efficient damp-proof course in existence in the building wall. If during building construction, a damp-proof course is not laid in the building walls, the moisture will continue to rise in the masonry work by capillary action, independently of the penetration of the rain in building brickwork from the outside. The surface dampness treatment of the building will prevent the evaporation of wall moisture. If the dampness in the building is solely due to the porosity of the brickwork, it can be removed by so many methods. If the buildings are treated externally, it will require little attention in the future while doing Home improvement or doing new building construction.

Following are some of the temporary remedies which can be used in treating the building external walls for removing dampness for Home improvement

(a) Waterproof solutions for dampness remedies in the building: If the damp-proof course of the building is working properly in preventing the rise of dampness from the ground, but heavy showers of rainwater penetrate the walls, causing dampness, external treatment becomes necessary. In this method, some water-proofing solution is applied on the outer surface of building external walls. In the market, these solutions are available under various trade names. The application of these solutions is simply because these are cheaper, but their coat should be renewed every three to four years. The application of these solutions is much cheaper than any other permanent remedy for this type of building dampness. For the application of these solutions on exposed brick walls, it is most necessary that all the pointing work should be in good order and there should be no space or projections for the accumulation of water.

(b) Water-proof cement washes for building dampness remedies: Nowadays in the market, various types of colored water-proof types of cement are available, which can be applied on the building surface after dissolving them in water. These washes are also available under various trade names such as snow cam. The application of these highly improves the appearance of De structures which have a long life. The cement powders which are available in the market are dissolved in the water and a paste is prepared. Three coats of this paste are done on the surface. Manufacturers also supply the details of their product along with the method of application.

(c) Lead paints for dampness remedies in the buildings: If after plastering the buildings (with cement), they are painted with lead paints, the rainwater cannot penetrate the walls. The application of these paints will increase the appearance as well as make the building damp-proof Before the application of lead paints, the cement plaster must be allowed to weather by exposing to sun and rain for at least twelve months. Zinc paints can also be used instead of lead paints.

(d) Boiled oil for Building dampness remedies: If the water-proof cement washes are not readily available in most remote parts, the ordinary boiled linseed oil can be used in treating the external walls. Absolute dryness is compulsory for the application of a boiled oil coat on the surface. Generally, 2-3 coats will prevent the penetration of moisture in the walls.

(e) Paraffin Wax for Building dampness remedies: The application of paraffin wax can also, prevent dampness in the buildings. As it is difficult to apply directly the wax, so it will be better to dissolve it first in kerosene oil, which will act as the vehicle in its distribution After application the kerosene oil will evaporate leaving a continuous membrane of solid paraffin on the surface of bricks.

Permanent Remedies for the Building Dampness

There are various methods that give permanent remedies against dampness in the building. All these methods can be classified as under:

(a) Surface treatment of the building

(b) Building Integral water-proofing

(c) Providing damp-proof courses of the Building

(d) By special constructional methods

(a) Surface Treatment of the Building: In the areas having excessive rainfall throughout the year, the walls can be prevented from dampness by the surface treatment. The surface treatment may be of two types. In one the pores of the exposed building walls and construction materials are filled or blinded by providing a thin film of water repellent material over the building surface. In the second type of weather tiles, slates, corrugated iron sheets, or other such things are fixed over the wall which protects it from the direct hit of rains.

Following are some of the water-repellent materials, which are used for surface waterproofing treatment.

(i) Sodium or potassium silicate (ii) Coal tar or bitumen (iii) Barium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate in alternate applications

(iv) Cement plaster or lime plaster

Decorative waterproof cement coating (snowcem) Come water-repellent materials, which are of temporary nature, are waxes and

soft soap and alum in alternate applications, lime and linseed oil, shellac, resins, and gums, etc.

(b)Integral waterproofing treatment of the Building: Certain synthetic compounds are available in the market, which if added to the construction materials, will make them denser. Materials like talc, fuller earth, chalk, etc. if added in the concrete or mortar will make them denser, and moisture cannot pass through them. To make concrete water repellent sometimes calcium, sodium, ammonium silicates and oxides, and petroleum oils are also used. These chemicals react chemically and make the materials water-proof. In the market, various types of compounds are available, a small percentage of which will make the cement mortar water-proof. Some trade names are Impermo, Ironite, Water lock, Cementone, Dampro, Permo, Raines, Colemanoid, Novoid etc.

(c) Providing Damp-Proof Course in the Building: The most common source of dampness is the capillary attraction of sub-soil water in the walls. Similarly, water can penetrate the masonry through faulty sills, unprotected parapets, bad workmanship, etc. In the previous articles, some methods have been suggested which can give rid of this bad thing temporarily. But temporary remedies can be used only When funds are not sufficient or buildings are to be dismantled in the early future. While constructing new buildings sufficient care should be taken so that the buildings must remain damp-proof. In new buildings or old buildings for the permanent remedy of dampness, a layer of water-repellent material is introduced, which acts as a barrier against the travel of damp. These water repellent material layers are called damp-proof courses. This method is also known as the membrane interposing method.

 (d) Special Constructional Methods For Dampness Remedies in the Building: The buildings can be kept damp-proof. by constructing them with special constructional methods. Nowadays many special techniques have been developed in this field.

A few of these special methods to prevent Building dampness are as follows:

(a) Hollow wall construction: If the cavity wall construction in the Building is done the wall exposed to the atmosphere will be wet but the wall on the inner side will always remain dry against the percolation of rain from the external surface of the walls.

(b) Using cement concrete hollow blocks in the construction of buildings in place of bricks.

(c) Using glazed tiles lining in bathrooms and other places where water is being used frequently or from where it may percolate in the masonry causing dampness.

(d) By providing cornices, sills, string courses, large sunshade over openings, so that rainwater may not have an entry in the structural materials.

(e) By providing sufficient slopes in the floors and roofs so that water may not stay over them and should be immediately drained off away from the building.

(f)By using best quality sanitary and water fittings, so that water may not leak from them at any place.

(g) By properly constructing the junctions of walls, roofs, parapet walls, etc., and providing special treatment at such places to check the entry of water.

(h)By providing composite masonry walls in the Building construction: In this method superior impervious stone or bricks are used in the face so that rainwater cannot penetrate through them. Similarly, rich cement mortar is used up to plinth. due to which the masonry up to plinth acts as the dampness-proof course.

(i) Building construction without walls: Few engineers suggest that walls from single-story buildings should be entirely abolished and constructed. The slopy roof, having eaves directly on the foundations will have so many good points. By using this special method the numbers of have so many good points. By using this special method the number of weak and dangerous places can be protected from the dampness which may enter the building.

 





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