The Need for Management in the Execution of Any Construction Project


Project







The deployment of resources involves money. Since for any work, the money available is limited, there is always a limitation on the available resources and as such they must be utilized in a planned and efficient manner so as to extract maximum benefits. The system which does all this is known as management. In the recent past, technological advances have been taking place at a very fast rate and the human relationship has lagged behind. In other words, sociology has not kept pace with technology. While technology deals with material things, management deals with both material things as well as human beings. Management increases productivity through technological innovations taking into account human factors involved in these advances.

Any new construction/project big or small has three objectives.

(i) The Construction project should take minimum time in its completion.

(ii) Available manpower and other resources should be used to the fullest extent.

(iii) Work should cost minimum.

Project Management in a construction project is a highly specialized job. It involves the three phases of planning. scheduling and controlling. Out of these three phases first two are accomplished before the actual construction work starts. The third phase is operative during the execution of the construction.

Functions of Construction Management

As already said the aim of construction management is to execute construction work in a most planned and efficient manner as per laid specifications and designs, within the prescribed time limit and with the greatest possible economy. To achieve the above-said objective, the Construction management has to perform the following functions.

Management of Construction Works

1. Planning

2. Organizing

3 Staffing

4.Directing

5.Controlling

6.Co-ordinating

 

Each function has been illustrated in brief.

I. Planning. What, when, and how to do the work is known as planning. The planner relies on sound judgment based on knowledge and experience as well as statistical or mathematical methods. In planning, various alternative methods of doing, the Construction works are studied and decisions are taken not only about the construction work as a whole but for each part of the work. The time of inception and completion, labor, materials, machines, and finance needed are all planned. The planner also takes care of the likely uncertainties in execution due to various unpredictable factors. Sometimes construction has to be phased depending upon the availability of resources and availability of funds.

2. Organizing. This act consists of the creation of an organizational setup that is capable and responsible for carrying out the planned activities. The type of organization depends on the type and volume of construction work besides the method of its execution. In Government departments like PWD, officers at different levels are given the responsibility for getting construction works done within their jurisdiction. They are assisted by subordinate staff whose duties and responsibilities are well defined. A large contracting firm may require an elaborate organization with tendering, planning, designing, drafting, costing, etc. centralized in the Headquarter and fieldwork assigned to site engineer supported by foremen.

3. Staffing. Manning the organization is known as staffing. It involves the proper selection of the staff, and in-service training so as to keep them fresh with the latest type of know-how.

4. Directing. This function of management involves motivating, guiding, supervising, and leading the employees of an organization. The objectives are achieved by effective communication between the employees and the management, to create an awareness of the planned programs and the methods and means to be adopted for the implementation.

Write from top managers down to foremen/work-masons all perform the function of directing. The objective of directing is to ensure that each employee knows exactly what he is supposed to do and how and when to do it.

5 Controlling. This function consists of monitoring the progress achieved in comparison with the planned programs. Areas of deficiency if any, are identified steps taken. The controlling act aims at

(i) Keeping a close watch over the progress of each activity of the work so that work may be completed in time.

(ii) Controlling the quality of Construction work strictly according to laid down specifications.

(iii) To avoid any wastage in the use of machines, materials, and output of labor.

(iv) Controlling the expenditure on each item of work so that the overall cost does not exceed the estimated cost.

6. Co-ordinating. There may be different opinions amongst individuals in respect of their sphere of work and objectives set for them. Co-ordinating is harmonizing the actions and approaches of various employees/groups of employees so as to achieve a common objective. In a construction organization, a number of inter-related inter-dependent activities may be simultaneously going on. It is imperative that the actions of various groups involved in each activity are such that they do not cause any hindrance in the progress of any other activity. For example, in an RCC work, it is essential that the concrete mixing gang does not start with the mixing of concrete without ensuring the completion of form-work and the placement of bars,

In short, the functions, of Construction management may be enumerated as follows:

1. Phasing the project

2. Exercising Administrative, financial and technical control

3. Planning and designing of the project

4. Procuring plants and equipment if any required during construction

5. Procurement of Building materials

6. Recruitment and training of staff and labor

7. Arranging payment of salaries and wages

8. Staff and labor welfare

9. Maintaining intimate contact between headquarter and site Engineer

10. Continuous monitoring of the progress achieved with the progress envisaged.

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