Systems of Plumbing for the House and Commercial Building



 

How many Types of Plumbing systems?

There are four systems of the plumbing of drainage work in a building:

1. Single stack system.
2. One pipe system.
3. One pipe system partially ventilated.
4. Two-pipe system.

 

All these four systems of drainage have been discussed one by one:

1. Single stack system. 



In this system, only one vertical soil pipe is used. The wastes from all the sanitary and soil appliances are discharged in the same pipe. The traps of W.C.s', sinks, basins, etc. are directly connected to the single stack pipe. In this system, there is no separate pipe for ventilation purposes. This system proves economical as only one pipe is to be provided. The effectiveness of this system depends entirely on the depth of the water seal. No water seal should be less than 7.5 cm in depth.

2. One pipe system. In this system of plumbing the waste connections from sinks, baths, wash-basins, and the soil pipe branches from W.C.'s, and urinals are all connected into one main pipe which is connected directly to the drainage system. Gully traps and waste pipe are completely dispensed with, but all the traps of W. Cs', basins, etc. are completely ventilated to preserve the water seal by a separate vent pipe. The following precautions should be taken in this system of plumbing:

(a) All the joints of the waste pipe should be air-tight.

(b) Each waste pipe should be connected to a common stack directly.

(c) Vent pipe diameter should not be less than 5 cm,

(d) The waste pipe should join the stack, above the soil branch at each floor.

(e) All traps should be provided with a deep-water seal of not less than 75 cm.

Since all the traps are ventilated by a separate vent pipe, this method proves to be more effective than the single stack system. But because of an additional pipe (vent pipe), it is costlier than the previous system of plumbing.

3. One-pipe Partially ventilating system. This system of plumbing is a via media between the one-pipe system and the single stack system. There is only one soil pipe, into which all W. Cs, baths, sinks, and washbasins discharge. In addition, there is a relief vent pipe that ventilates only the traps of W. Cs, and urinals. The following precautions should be taken when this system of plumbing is adopted:

(i) Like a one-pipe system, it should be provided with deep water seals, at least 7-5 cm.

(ii) The diameter of the vent pipe should not be less than 5 cm.

(iii) The waste pipe should join the stack above the soil branch on each floor.

(iv) The fall or waste pipe should be continuous and gradual. The slope of the waste pipe should be between 1 in 12 to 1 in 48.

4. Two-pipe system. 



In this system of plumbing two sets of pipes are installed. W.Cs. and urinals (i.e., soil fixtures) are connected to vertical soil pipes while baths, kitchens, basins, etc. are connected to another, separate vertical waste pipe. Soil pipes and waste pipes are provided with separate vent pipes. This system thus requires four pipes and hence proves very costly. The soil pipe is connected to the drain directly but the waste pipe should be connected through a trapped gully.

In General, one pipe system and sometimes, one pipe system partially the ventilated area in most common use. The plumbing system can be made more economical by the compact grouping of fitments in both horizontal and vertical directions. This implies that if care is taken and ingenuity brought into play when designing the original building or buildings to be drained, it is possible to group the Sanitary fittings and other equipment requiring drainage, both in vertical and horizontal planes so as to simplify the drainage system and make it most economical.

 

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