Water Supply Requirements for Buildings

In a Home water supply pipe fittings are provided in all the W.C.'s, bathrooms, washbasin, kitchens, etc. This system of Building water supply pipes is either fed from municipal water mains which run along the streets or fed through an overhead water storage tank. If in a building the water supply is maintained for 24 hours, there is no need of storing water, as water will be available at taps for all 24 hours. In case the Building water supply is only for some hours in a day, it is general practice to construct an overhead storage tank. In case of intermittent supply of water, comparatively larger water pipes have to be laid so as to avail full day's supply of water in few hours of supply.

Overhead storage tanks are connected to municipal mains through pipes. Connection with municipal water main is provided with the help of ferrule. If the water supply main is made of cast-iron ferrule can be directly screwed to it, in a threaded hole which is made by a special machine. But if main is not of cast-iron but of A.C. pipes, as is the usual case these days, a clamp is first fitted on the main where the connection is to be made. The A.C. pipe is punched carefully with the help of punches. A gasket of rubber or leather having a hole of the size of the ferrule is put on the puncher hole and kept pressed under the clamp. The clamp also has a threaded hole which is kept in line with the holes of the pipe and the gasket. The clamp is made in two halves and both its parts are kept secured to the pipe with the help of bolts. Now the ferrule is screwed into the hole made in the clamp. On the other end of the ferrule, a service pipe is attached which supplies water to the house.

 Water Supply Systems

1. Water supply for residences -Requirement regarding water supply for residences should be assumed as 135 liters per head per day. But of 135 liters per head per day, 41 liters per head per day is assumed as requirements for flushing and remaining for other domestic purposes.

2. Water supply for buildings other than residences.

 Water Supply Fitting used in a Building

For water supply to a building always galvanized iron pipe is used. The size of the pipe depends upon factors like the head of water, and population to be served, etc. Upper normal conditions individual residential buildings are provided with 15 mm diameter pipe. From the municipal main to the house, the pipeline may be buried underground. At the start of the buildings, the pipe should be taken up to the plinth level, using elbows and small lengths of vertical pipes. After this pipeline is maintained at plinth level and connection pipes are taken from it to provide necessary water taps in bathrooms, W. C’s kitchens washbasins, and sinks, etc. For laying pipeline in a building following attachment are required:

1. Sockets. They are required to lengthen the pipeline. Sockets have threads inside and they are tightened on the external threads made at the end of the pipes. Full-length pipes have threads at both of their ends. But if pipe length has to be cut as per requirements, threads have to be engraved at the cut ends with the help of a threading die.

2. Bends. They are also made of galvanized iron pipes. They can be used to give the necessary turn to the pipeline. Nowadays they are not in very common use.

3. Elbow. It is made of galvanized iron. It is used to give 90° turn to the pipe. In water supply pipelines elbows are mostly used. The use of bends has almost completely been eliminated by elbows.

4. Bib-tap. or water tap. It is the water-tap that is provided at the end of the pipe connection. One end of it is tightened on the pipe and the other end remains free to discharge water into the atmosphere.

Stop-tap. It is a valve which when inserted in a pipeline controls the flow of water in the line. The standard size of a bib-tap or stop-tap should be designed by the nominal bore of the pipe to which the tap is to be fitted. Bib-taps and stop-taps shall be of the following sizes: 8 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, 32 mm, 40 mm, and 50 mm.

6. Check out or union. It is such an attachment by which two pipes that cannot be turned, can be connected by screwing one part of the valve on one pipe and another end on the second pipe.

There are valves like air valve, scour valve, reflex valve, sluice valve, etc. but they are provided on municipal water mains and not on house pipe fittings.

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